Jak je to s tím STP RSTP MSTP ?

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Jak je to s tím STP RSTP MSTP ?

Příspěvekod catman » 05 črc 2011 (úte), 12:37

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The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable network loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is, an STA-compliant switch, bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only one route exists between any two stations on the network, and provide backup links which automatically take over when a primary link goes down. The spanning tree algorithms supported by this switch include these versions:

STP – Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)

RSTP – Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)

MSTP – Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s)

STA uses a distributed algorithm to select a bridging device (STA-compliant switch, bridge or router) that serves as the root of the spanning tree network. It selects a root port on each bridging device (except for the root device) which incurs the lowest path cost when forwarding a packet from that device to the root device. Then it selects a designated bridging device from each LAN which incurs the lowest path cost when forwarding a packet from that LAN to the root device. All ports connected to designated bridging devices are assigned as designated ports. After determining the lowest cost spanning tree, it enables all root ports and designated ports, and disables all other ports. Network packets are therefore only forwarded between root ports and designated ports, eliminating any possible network loops.

Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs ) transmitted from the Root Bridge. If a bridge does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined interval (Maximum Age), the bridge assumes that the link to the Root Bridge is down. This bridge will then initiate negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to reestablish a valid network topology.

RSTP is designed as a general replacement for the slower, legacy STP. RSTP is also incorporated into MSTP. RSTP achieves must faster reconfiguration (i.e., around one tenth of the time required by STP) by reducing the number of state changes before active ports start learning, predefining an alternate route that can be used when a node or port fails, and retaining the forwarding database for ports insensitive to changes in the tree structure when reconfiguration occurs.

When using STP or RSTP, it may be difficult to maintain a stable path between all VLAN members. Frequent changes in the tree structure can easily isolate some of the group members. MSTP (an extension of RSTP) is designed to support independent spanning trees based on VLAN groups. Once you specify the VLANs to include in a Multiple Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI), the protocol will automatically build an MSTI tree to maintain connectivity among each of the VLANs. MSTP maintains contact with the global network because each instance is treated as an RSTP node in the Common Spanning Tree (CST).

Spanning Tree Protocol

Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs. This creates one spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple VLANs are implemented on a network, the path between specific VLAN members may be inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops, thus isolating group members. When operating multiple VLANs, we recommend selecting the MSTP option.

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol

RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring the incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of protocol messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:

STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU (i.e., STP BPDU) after a port’s migration delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an 802.1D bridge and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.

RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an RSTP BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration delay timer and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.

Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol

To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTP configuration, allowing them to participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.

A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible VLAN instance assignments.

Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing modes stops all spanning-tree instances for the previous mode and restarts the system in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user traffic.
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